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Home » Articles » LESSON NOTES (Social Studies) » Upper Primary


DISASTERS

DISASTERS

A disaster is any sudden event which causes great damage to property or loss of life.

Disasters are sometimes referred to as calamities or catastrophes.

There are two types of disasters which are:

  1. Natural disaster
  2. Man-made disaster

 

Natural disasters occur naturally without human action, examples are:

  1. Earthquake

           

This is the sudden shaking of the ground as a result of movement of tectonic plates.

Earthquake is measured by instrument called Seismograph.

 

  1. Volcanic eruption

           

This is the ejection of hot steam, magma and rock fragments through openings in the earth’s surface.

When magma cools and solidifies it forms A volcanic mountain and rocks called igneous rocks.

A mountain formed by accumulation of magma is called a volcano  . A volcano has a hole called crater at the top.

 

  1. Floods

           

Flood is a large amount of water that has spread all over an area of land that should be dry. Floods can occur due to heavy rainfall.

 

  1. Drought, desertification and famine.

           

A drought is an extended period of months and years without rain, this causes desertification.

Desertification is the process in which useful land turns into a desert, this may cause famine.

Famine is the situation when a certain area lacks enough food for a long period of time, this may cause diseases and loss of life.

 

  1. Mass wasting

           

This is the movement of loose materials down a slope without the help of any agent like running water or human force. This may cause destruction of buildings, bending of fences, loss of life.

 

  1. Epidemic, Endemic and Pandemic

An epidemic is the outbreak of a disease that spreads out very quickly and affects many people or animal at the same time. When Endemic spreads over the whole country or world, it is called pandemic.

 

  1. Tsunamis

           

A tsunami is a very large wave in the sea.

Tsunamis are caused by disturbances such as Earthquake or volcanic eruption which occur under water.

Tsunamis may cause disasters like loss of life and destruction of property.

 

Man-made disasters occur because  of human action such as accidents, war, terrorism, stampedes and riot.

 

EFFECTS OF DISASTERS

  1. Loss of lives
  2. Destruction of property
  3. Health problems
  4. Global warming
  5. Damage to crops
  6. Migration of people from one place to another.
  7. Food and water shortage.

 

PRECAUTION TAKEN BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER DISASTER

  1. Never stay in areas with volcanic mountain.
  2. Planting trees may reduce the rate of mass wasting.
  3. People should be educated about how to preserve their environment
  4. Drivers should drive carefully in order to reduce the number of accidents.
  5. Early warning should be developed, this will reduce the potential risk of disaster.
  6. Tents are very important
  7. Negligence should not be entertained at all.

************  END  ***************

Category: Upper Primary | Added by: Admin (30/Jul/2017) | Author: Yahya Mohamed E W
Views: 80 | Tags: Calamity, Hunger, calamities, Famine, Disaster, Disasters, Catastrophe, volcanic eruption, mass wasting, Death | Rating: 0.0/0
Total comments: 0
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